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FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions

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Why are my cattle scratching?

The characteristic symptom of infection with lice or mites is scratching, hair loss and a roughening of the coat. It’s important to note that these parasites can be a sign of an underlying problem, an upset animal will spend less time grooming themselves. Their coat will subsequently become scruffy and parasites can proliferate.

Lice are very common on cattle and low to moderate rates of infection are normal and shouldn’t cause concern. However, they can multiply and spread rapidly in indoor situations as animals come into frequent physical contact with other, infected animals. Thick winter coats provide the perfect environment for lice development and reproduction. As this coat is shed in the spring, parasite numbers dwindle. Direct exposure to sunlight also reduces lice proliferation rates.

The characteristic symptom of infection with lice or mites is scratching, hair loss and a roughening of the coat. It’s important to note that these parasites can be a sign of an underlying problem, an upset animal will spend less time grooming themselves. Their coat will subsequently become scruffy and parasites can proliferate.

Lice are very common on cattle and low to moderate rates of infection are normal and shouldn’t cause concern. However, they can multiply and spread rapidly in indoor situations as animals come into frequent physical contact with other, infected animals. Thick winter coats provide the perfect environment for lice development and reproduction. As this coat is shed in the spring, parasite numbers dwindle. Direct exposure to sunlight also reduces lice proliferation rates.

What is twin lamb disease or ketosis, and how do I treat it?

These conditions are imbalances of glucose in the systems of sheep (twin lamb disease/pregnancy toxaemia) and cows (ketosis/acetonemia). Typically, they occur just before and/or shortly after calving/lambing time. Treating them involves the administration of propylene glycol, a precursor for glucose production, which is found in Chanatol. Treating orally with glucose will not work as it will be metabolised by the microbes in the rumen.

These conditions are imbalances of glucose in the systems of sheep (twin lamb disease/pregnancy toxaemia) and cows (ketosis/acetonemia). Typically, they occur just before and/or shortly after calving/lambing time. Treating them involves the administration of propylene glycol, a precursor for glucose production. Treating orally with glucose will not work as it will be metabolised by the microbes in the rumen.

How do I treat liver fluke?

Using a flukicide product – look for active ingredients such as triclabendazole, nitroxynil, rafoxanide, closantel, oxyclozanide, clorsulon or albendazole (which is the only single active effective against both the main internal worms and liver fluke). Note that these ingredients differ in that they treat different stages of liver fluke.

Using a flukicide product – look for active ingredients such as triclabendazole, nitroxynil, closantel, oxyclozanide, clorsulon or albendazole (which is the only single active effective against both the main internal worms and liver fluke). Note that these ingredients differ in that they treat different stages of liver fluke.

What product will kill all stages of liver fluke?

Currently, triclabendazole products, e.g. Tribex, are the only ones effective against all stages of liver fluke (2-14 weeks).

Currently, triclabendazole products, e.g. Tribex, are the only ones effective against all stages of liver fluke (2-14 weeks).

What causes liver fluke?

Two things are required for infection – animals infected with adult liver fluke (which lay eggs that pass out in faeces) and the presence of tiny mud snails on pasture (in the vicinity of where this faeces lands). These snails thrive in warm, wet conditions and need only a small environment to cause a herd-wide problem, e.g. a leaking water trough/single boggy area on an otherwise dry farm during the summer months.

Two things are required for infection – animals infected with adult liver fluke (which lay eggs that pass out in faeces) and the presence of tiny mud snails on pasture (in the vicinity of where this faeces lands). These snails thrive in warm, wet conditions and need only a small environment to cause a herd-wide problem, e.g. a leaking water trough/single boggy area on an otherwise dry farm during the summer months.

Why are my cows coughing?

Although mature animals will have built up a natural immunity against lungworm, the parasite can cause reactionary symptoms in older cows whose natural immunity has weakened. This immunity requires constant ‘top up’ in the form of lungworm larvae on pasture. In dry conditions, pasture larvae levels are low and so exposure and immunity are reduced. If wet conditions follow we often see mature animals coughing due to reduced natural immunity.

Although mature animals will have built up a natural immunity against lungworm, the parasite can cause reactionary symptoms in older cows whose natural immunity has weakened. This immunity requires constant ‘top up’ in the form of lungworm larvae on pasture. In dry conditions, pasture larvae levels are low and so exposure and immunity are reduced. If wet conditions follow we often see mature animals coughing due to reduced natural immunity.

When should my calves get their first dose?

Artificially-reared calves require protection sooner than suckling calves from worms, in general. These animals are vulnerable as they will have no natural immunity built up at turnout. Concurrently they will be utilising grass as their main nutrition source and so consuming much more parasite larvae than suckling calves.

They will commonly be given products with persistence from three weeks post-turnout (clear wormers). First dose in suckler calves will generally not be required until they are consuming more grass (>3-4 months of age), but is dependent on variables like cow milkability, precipitation during the season, pasture history and stocking rate. Look for animals coughing when moved and/or thrive reduction as an indicator to dose suckler calves.

From a coccidiosis point of view, preventative treatment should be given a week in advance of expected symptoms, across whole groups, based on farm history.

Artificially-reared calves require protection sooner than suckling calves from worms, in general. These animals are vulnerable as they will have no natural immunity built up at turnout. Concurrently they will be utilising grass as their main nutrition source and so consuming much more parasite larvae than suckling calves.

They will commonly be given products with persistence from three weeks post-turnout (clear wormers). First dose in suckler calves will generally not be required until they are consuming more grass (>3-4 months of age), but is dependent on variables like cow milkability, precipitation during the season, pasture history and stocking rate. Look for animals coughing when moved and/or thrive reduction as an indicator to dose suckler calves.

From a coccidiosis point of view, preventative treatment should be given a week in advance of expected symptoms, across whole groups, based on farm history.

What is the best dose for lambs?

Best practice is to use white wormers like Albex, Zerofen or Bovex as a lamb’s first dose against nematodirus and then switch to yellow (Chanaverm Plus) or clear products (Moxodex or Animec Oral) thereafter as required.

Best practice is to use white wormers like Albex, Zerofen or Bovex as a lamb’s first dose against nematodirus and then switch to yellow (Chanaverm) or clear products (Moxodex or Animec Oral) thereafter as required.

How long between doses?

Leave 3-4 weeks between products with zero persistency and when timing a dose after a persistent product, add 3-4 weeks to the length of protection from reinfection (persistency) on the product label to get a practical dosing interval. Note a second treatment may not be required at all - use performance/faecal analysis where possible to help with decisions.

Leave 3-4 weeks between products with zero persistency and when timing a dose after a persistent product, add 3-4 weeks to the length of protection from reinfection (persistency) on the product label to get a practical dosing interval. Note a second treatment may not be required at all - use performance/faecal analysis where possible to help with decisions.

What is the best worm dose for calves?

This depends on farm history. Obviously avoid ingredients that the farm’s worm population has shown resistance to recently. Work choices around the farmer’s own time here. Products with persistence will require less frequent usage. Note that suckler calves will not be grazing as tight as dairy calves of the same age and will generally not need treatments until later in the season.

This depends on farm history. Obviously avoid ingredients that the farm’s worm population has shown resistance to recently. Work choices around the farmer’s own time here. Products with persistence will require less frequent usage. Note that suckler calves will not be grazing as tight as dairy calves of the same age and will generally not need treatments until later in the season.

How do I know that I have resistance?

Symptoms will remain/develop shortly after dosing. Where products have zero persistence, seeing symptoms from three weeks post dosing would be classified as normal. Use faecal egg analysis before and after treatment to confirm. In the case of lungworm, a cough post dosing can be a sign that the dose worked well but resulted in a significant amount of decaying worm material in the respiratory system causing an allergic reaction.

Symptoms will remain/develop shortly after dosing. Where products have zero persistence, seeing symptoms from three weeks post dosing would be classified as normal. Use faecal egg analysis before and after treatment to confirm. In the case of lungworm, a cough post dosing can be a sign that the dose worked well but resulted in a significant amount of decaying worm material in the respiratory system causing an allergic reaction.

What is the best housing treatment?

Currently no product covers all stages of all the important parasites in cattle or sheep. Protocol should be based on risk in a given year.

Currently no product covers all stages of all the important parasites in cattle or sheep. Protocol should be based on risk in a given year.

Is stomach fluke the same as rumen fluke?
Is stomach fluke the same as stomach worms?
How do I take a faecal sample?

Take the sample fresh – as a rule you should hear the faeces that you’re collecting hit the ground. For a group sample, rise lying animals and they will pass dung shortly after. Take 50-100g pooled from 5-10 animals for an accurate reading. To take dung from a single animal with suspected infection, manually palpitate the rectum using a gloved hand until dung is passed. Seal collected faeces in a collection jar straightaway and send for analysis. Never freeze. Watch a how-to video

Take the sample fresh – as a rule you should hear the faeces that you’re collecting hit the ground. For a group sample, rise lying animals and they will pass dung shortly after. Take 50-100g pooled from 5-10 animals for an accurate reading. To take dung from a single animal with suspected infection, manually palpitate the rectum using a gloved hand until dung is passed. Seal collected faeces in a collection jar straightaway and send for analysis. Never freeze. Watch a how-to video

When should dairy cows get their first dose?

Best practice is to base dose timing on combination of changes in yield, condition and levels of coughing when exercising. Often, dosing before these symptoms will cause an increase in yield. This is because there is an energy-cost of maintaining natural immunity and treatment reduces this cost on the animals metabolism, leaving more for milk production. However, dosing too frequently will accelerate the onset of resistance to wormers.

Best practice is to base dose timing on combination of changes in yield, condition and levels of coughing when exercising. Often, dosing before these symptoms will cause an increase in yield. This is because there is an energy-cost of maintaining natural immunity and treatment reduces this cost on the animals metabolism, leaving more for milk production. However, dosing too frequently will accelerate the onset of resistance to wormers.

Do I need to dose my cows every year?

This is both farm and year specific. Rainfall largely governs the amount of parasites an animal is exposed to, so in years of low rainfall treatment may not be necessary (no symptoms/good yields all season), but this can change drastically in wet years – particularly in the case of lungworm where naturally immunity will dwindle in dry years, leaving animals very susceptible thereafter.

This is both farm and year specific. Rainfall largely governs the amount of parasites an animal is exposed to, so in years of low rainfall treatment may not be necessary (no symptoms/good yields all season), but this can change drastically in wet years – particularly in the case of lungworm where naturally immunity will dwindle in dry years, leaving animals very susceptible thereafter.

What is the main symptom of worms in farm animals?

In drystock thrive will initially be affected, then scour will appear where gut and stomach worm burdens are high. High burdens of stomach worms in dairy cattle will produce bulk milk ostertagia ODR readings in excess of 0.5 and yield will be affected. Coughing is the initial sign of a lungworm burden in cattle. Faecal analysis, looking for L1 larvae, can be used to confirm lungworm in young cattle (<1.5 years) but not older animals. Lungwashes or analysis of antibodies can be used in these cases.

In drystock thrive will initially be affected, then scour will appear where gut and stomach worm burdens are high. High burdens of stomach worms in dairy cattle will produce bulk milk ostertagia ODR readings in excess of 0.5 and yield will be affected. Coughing is the initial sign of a lungworm burden in cattle. Faecal analysis, looking for L1 larvae, can be used to confirm lungworm in young cattle (<1.5 years) but not older animals. Lungwashes or analysis of antibodies can be used in these cases.

How do I treat coccidiosis?

Anticoccidials like diclazuril (Dycoxan) or toltrazuril (Chanox) will act to stop the coccidia lifecycle in the infected animal and prevent further oocyst shedding. However, as with all diarrhoea cases in cattle, our animal may need additional therapy if the symptoms have progressed enough – particularly rehydration therapy. Coccidiosis is largely a sub-clinical, or silent, disease. If one animal in a group is displaying symptoms, it is likely the whole group are compromised and should be treated in a preventative manner. Read more on coccidiosis...

Anticoccidials like diclazuril (Dycoxan) will act to stop the coccidia lifecycle in the infected animal and prevent further oocyst shedding. However, as with all diarrhoea cases in cattle, our animal may need additional therapy if the symptoms have progressed enough – particularly rehydration therapy. Coccidiosis is largely a sub-clinical, or silent, disease. If one animal in a group is displaying symptoms, it is likely the whole group are compromised and should be treated in a preventative manner. Read more on coccidiosis...

When should I use anti-coccidials to prevent coccidiosis?

Use Chanox or Dycoxan across whole bunches one week in advance of when coccidiosis symptoms are expected, based on farm history. Read more on coccidiosis...


Watch a video on timing coccidiosis doses

Use Dycoxan across whole bunches one week in advance of when coccidiosis symptoms are expected, based on farm history. Read more on coccidiosis...


Watch a video on timing coccidiosis doses

Are injectable doses better than pour ons?

If delivered accurately, both should be effective against the parasites they’re licenced to eradicate. Pour on doses typically have more encompassing treatment claims against external parasites. Animec Pour On will cover both biting and sucking lice while Animec Injection may not achieve complete removal of the biting lice population.

If delivered accurately, both should be effective against the parasites they’re licenced to eradicate. Pour on doses typically have more encompassing treatment claims against external parasites. Animec Pour On will cover both biting and sucking lice while Animec Injection may not achieve complete removal of the biting lice population.

Do I need to clip cattle before using pour on doses?

It is not a necessity for the product to work.

It is not a necessity for the product to work.

Does ivermectin treat fluke?

No. Though there are products available that contain combinations of ivermectin and a fluckicide, such as Animec Super. Read more...

No. Though there are products available that contain combinations of ivermectin and a fluckicide, such as Animec Super. Read more...

What are the wormer classes?

White (benzimidazole), yellow (levamisole) and clear (macrocyclic lactone). In sheep there are two other classes which are generally saved for use as break or quarantine doses. They are the orange (amino-acetonitrile derivatives) and purple (spiroindoles) classes.

White (benzimidazole), yellow (levamisole) and clear (macrocyclic lactone). In sheep there are two other classes which are generally saved for use as break or quarantine doses. They are the orange (amino-acetonitrile derivatives) and purple (spiroindoles) classes.

What do white wormers kill?

White wormers or Benzimidazoles kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep, as well as the ruminant tapeworm (Moniezia – generally non-pathogenic). Albendazole also treats mature liver fluke at a certain dose rate.

White wormers or Benzimidazoles kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep, as well as the ruminant tapeworm (Moniezia – generally non-pathogenic). Albendazole also treats mature liver fluke at a certain dose rate.

What do yellow wormers kill?

Yellow wormers or levamisoles kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep. Note that in cattle they are not effective against inhibited (or arrested) L4 Ostertagia o. larvae.

Yellow wormers or levamisoles kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep. Note that in cattle they are not effective against inhibited (or arrested) L4 Ostertagia o. larvae.

What do clear wormers kill?

Clear wormers or macrocyclic lactones kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep. They also treat certain external parasites, based on the route of application.

Clear wormers or macrocyclic lactones kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep. They also treat certain external parasites, based on the route of application.

What wormer classes have persistent activity?

Certain clear wormers (macrocyclic lactones) have licensed persistent activity in cattle and sheep, meaning they prevent reinfection with certain parasites for a defined period post treatment. Check the packaging to be sure. Chanelle Pharma products with this characteristic include Moxodex Oral (sheep), Animec Injection, Animec Pour On, Animec Super, Epromec, Topimec Super, Topimec Pour On and Zeromectin (cattle). Resistance to these products is growing in both cattle and sheep and so a vet or licensed merchant should be consulted before using them.

Certain clear wormers (macrocyclic lactones) have licenced persistent activity in cattle and sheep, meaning they prevent reinfection with certain parasites for a defined period post treatment. Check the packaging to be sure. Chanelle Pharma products with this characteristic include Moxodex Oral (sheep), Animec Injection, Animec Pour On, Animec Super and Epromec (cattle). Resistance to these products is growing in both cattle and sheep and so a vet or SQP should be consulted before using them.

When should I treat nematodirus?

Nematodirus is the first worm that spring lambs encounter, and symptoms are expected when there’s a sudden lift in temperatures in late-spring. Agricultural media organisations will generally advise treatment timings based on prevailing weather and geography. Nematodirus season generally occurs from mid-April to mid-May but can vary depending on the above variables. Read more...

Nematodirus is the first worm that spring lambs encounter, and symptoms are expected when there’s a sudden lift in temperatures in late-spring. Agricultural media organisations will generally advise treatment timings based on prevailing weather and geography. Nematodirus season generally occurs from mid-April to mid-May but can vary depending on the above variables. Read more...

Can one product treat nematodirus and coccidiosis?
Should my cattle be coughing after treatment?

Post-treatment coughing is not necessarily a sign of unsuccessful treatment. It can be the animal’s natural mechanism to remove dead worm material after a kill was achieved. Coughing animals should be monitored closely in case further complications develop.
Read more...

Post-treatment coughing is not necessarily a sign of unsuccessful treatment. It can be the animal’s natural mechanism to remove dead worm material after a kill was achieved. Coughing animals should be monitored closely in case further complications develop.
Read more...

Should sheep farmers stop using white wormers (benzimidazoles)?

Although resistance to white wormers has been largely chronicled, they remain very effective against Nematodirus. Hence, they are perfect as a lamb’s first dose when Nematodirus is generally the sole gastrointestinal worm of concern.

Although resistance to white wormers has been largely chronicled, they remain very effective against Nematodirus. Hence, they are perfect as a lamb’s first dose when Nematodirus is generally the sole gastrointestinal worm of concern.

Are yellow wormers (levamisoles) the best treatment for lungworm?

As they paralyse, rather than kill the worm straightaway, yellow wormers allow for more natural expulsion of parasites from the lungs. They are the best choice if a moderate to large lungworm infection is expected. However, if in infestation is large enough any product can induce excessive coughing and thus respiratory complications in animals. That is why it’s important not to let lungworm infection get too advanced. Note they are not suitable for use in animals producing milk for human consumption. Read more...
Video on picking a lungworm dose

As they paralyse, rather than kill the worm straightaway, yellow wormers allow for more natural expulsion of parasites from the lungs. They are the best choice if a moderate to large lungworm infection is expected. However, if in infestation is large enough any product can induce excessive coughing and thus respiratory complications in animals. That is why it’s important not to let lungworm infection get too advanced. Note they are not suitable for use in animals producing milk for human consumption. Read more...

When is the best time to use a combination fluke & worm product?

Generally, we should avoid using flukicides when they’re not needed and vice versa wormers needn’t be used without necessity. Combination products are good housing treatments (note the age of fluke that is covered as most will leave certain stages behind). Also, they have a use early in a wet summer when warm moist conditions are proliferating and we want to prevent infection of mudsnails on pasture with liver fluke larvae. Cattle may also be receiving a routine worm dose at this point and so a combination product could be used instead. Read more...

Generally, we should avoid using flukicides when they’re not needed and vice versa wormers needn’t be used without necessity. Combination products are good housing treatments (note the age of fluke that is covered as most will leave certain stages behind). Also, they have a use early in a wet summer when warm moist conditions are proliferating and we want to prevent infection of mudsnails on pasture with liver fluke larvae. Cattle may also be receiving a routine worm dose at this point and so a combination product could be used instead. Read more...

How do I treat tapeworm?

Benzimidazole (white wormers) are effective against ruminant tapeworm (Moniezia), as are oxyclozanide products like Rumenil. This is the type you see in animals’ dung but not the type that causes meat condemnations in the factory or neurological issues. The latter are symptoms of carnivore (e.g. dog) tapeworm, which use our animal as an intermediate host. Preventing these would involve treating farm dogs and preventing them from defecating on pastures grazed by sheep or cattle. Read more...

Benzimidazole (white wormers) are effective against ruminant tapeworm (Moniezia), as are oxyclozanide products like Rumenil. This is the type you see in animals’ dung but not the type that causes meat condemnations in the factory or neurological issues. The latter are symptoms of carnivore (e.g. dog) tapeworm, which use our animal as an intermediate host. Preventing these would involve treating farm dogs and preventing them from defecating on pastures grazed by sheep or cattle. Read more...

How can I treat rumen fluke?

There are currently no products licensed to treat rumen or stomach fluke. However, the mature liver flukicide oxyclozanide has shown to be effective at eradicating all stages of rumen fluke infection in research trials. There are several products on the market that contain oxyclozanide as an active ingredient either on its own or in combination with wormers. Vets should always be consulted regarding rumen fluke treatment.

There are currently no products licensed to treat rumen or stomach fluke. However, the mature liver flukicide oxyclozanide has shown to be effective at eradicating all stages of rumen fluke infection in research trials. There are several products on the market that contain oxyclozanide as an active ingredient either on its own or in combination with wormers. Vets should always be consulted regarding rumen fluke treatment.

Lungworm

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Why are my cows coughing?

Although mature animals will have built up a natural immunity against lungworm, the parasite can cause reactionary symptoms in older cows whose natural immunity has weakened. This immunity requires constant ‘top up’ in the form of lungworm larvae on pasture. In dry conditions, pasture larvae levels are low and so exposure and immunity are reduced. If wet conditions follow we often see mature animals coughing due to reduced natural immunity.

Although mature animals will have built up a natural immunity against lungworm, the parasite can cause reactionary symptoms in older cows whose natural immunity has weakened. This immunity requires constant ‘top up’ in the form of lungworm larvae on pasture. In dry conditions, pasture larvae levels are low and so exposure and immunity are reduced. If wet conditions follow we often see mature animals coughing due to reduced natural immunity.

Should my cattle be coughing after treatment?

Post-treatment coughing is not necessarily a sign of unsuccessful treatment. It can be the animal’s natural mechanism to remove dead worm material after a kill was achieved. Coughing animals should be monitored closely in case further complications develop.
Read more...

Post-treatment coughing is not necessarily a sign of unsuccessful treatment. It can be the animal’s natural mechanism to remove dead worm material after a kill was achieved. Coughing animals should be monitored closely in case further complications develop.
Read more...

Gastrointestinal Worms in Sheep

No search results for this query.
When should I treat nematodirus?

Nematodirus is the first worm that spring lambs encounter, and symptoms are expected when there’s a sudden lift in temperatures in late-spring. Agricultural media organisations will generally advise treatment timings based on prevailing weather and geography. Nematodirus season generally occurs from mid-April to mid-May but can vary depending on the above variables. Read more...

Nematodirus is the first worm that spring lambs encounter, and symptoms are expected when there’s a sudden lift in temperatures in late-spring. Agricultural media organisations will generally advise treatment timings based on prevailing weather and geography. Nematodirus season generally occurs from mid-April to mid-May but can vary depending on the above variables. Read more...

Gastrointestinal Worms in Cattle

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What is the main symptom of worms in farm animals?

In drystock thrive will initially be affected, then scour will appear where gut and stomach worm burdens are high. High burdens of stomach worms in dairy cattle will produce bulk milk ostertagia ODR readings in excess of 0.5 and yield will be affected. Coughing is the initial sign of a lungworm burden in cattle. Faecal analysis, looking for L1 larvae, can be used to confirm lungworm in young cattle (<1.5 years) but not older animals. Lungwashes or analysis of antibodies can be used in these cases.

In drystock thrive will initially be affected, then scour will appear where gut and stomach worm burdens are high. High burdens of stomach worms in dairy cattle will produce bulk milk ostertagia ODR readings in excess of 0.5 and yield will be affected. Coughing is the initial sign of a lungworm burden in cattle. Faecal analysis, looking for L1 larvae, can be used to confirm lungworm in young cattle (<1.5 years) but not older animals. Lungwashes or analysis of antibodies can be used in these cases.

Coccidiosis

No search results for this query.
When should I use anti-coccidials to prevent coccidiosis?

Use Chanox or Dycoxan across whole bunches one week in advance of when coccidiosis symptoms are expected, based on farm history. Read more on coccidiosis...


Watch a video on timing coccidiosis doses

Use Dycoxan across whole bunches one week in advance of when coccidiosis symptoms are expected, based on farm history. Read more on coccidiosis...


Watch a video on timing coccidiosis doses

Can one product treat nematodirus and coccidiosis?

Liver Fluke

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How do I treat liver fluke?

Using a flukicide product – look for active ingredients such as triclabendazole, nitroxynil, rafoxanide, closantel, oxyclozanide, clorsulon or albendazole (which is the only single active effective against both the main internal worms and liver fluke). Note that these ingredients differ in that they treat different stages of liver fluke.

Using a flukicide product – look for active ingredients such as triclabendazole, nitroxynil, closantel, oxyclozanide, clorsulon or albendazole (which is the only single active effective against both the main internal worms and liver fluke). Note that these ingredients differ in that they treat different stages of liver fluke.

What product will kill all stages of liver fluke?

Currently, triclabendazole products, e.g. Tribex, are the only ones effective against all stages of liver fluke (2-14 weeks).

Currently, triclabendazole products, e.g. Tribex, are the only ones effective against all stages of liver fluke (2-14 weeks).

What causes liver fluke?

Two things are required for infection – animals infected with adult liver fluke (which lay eggs that pass out in faeces) and the presence of tiny mud snails on pasture (in the vicinity of where this faeces lands). These snails thrive in warm, wet conditions and need only a small environment to cause a herd-wide problem, e.g. a leaking water trough/single boggy area on an otherwise dry farm during the summer months.

Two things are required for infection – animals infected with adult liver fluke (which lay eggs that pass out in faeces) and the presence of tiny mud snails on pasture (in the vicinity of where this faeces lands). These snails thrive in warm, wet conditions and need only a small environment to cause a herd-wide problem, e.g. a leaking water trough/single boggy area on an otherwise dry farm during the summer months.

Does ivermectin treat fluke?

No. Though there are products available that contain combinations of ivermectin and a fluckicide, such as Animec Super. Read more...

No. Though there are products available that contain combinations of ivermectin and a fluckicide, such as Animec Super. Read more...

Rumen Fluke

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Is stomach fluke the same as rumen fluke?
Is stomach fluke the same as stomach worms?
How can I treat rumen fluke?

There are currently no products licensed to treat rumen or stomach fluke. However, the mature liver flukicide oxyclozanide has shown to be effective at eradicating all stages of rumen fluke infection in research trials. There are several products on the market that contain oxyclozanide as an active ingredient either on its own or in combination with wormers. Vets should always be consulted regarding rumen fluke treatment.

There are currently no products licensed to treat rumen or stomach fluke. However, the mature liver flukicide oxyclozanide has shown to be effective at eradicating all stages of rumen fluke infection in research trials. There are several products on the market that contain oxyclozanide as an active ingredient either on its own or in combination with wormers. Vets should always be consulted regarding rumen fluke treatment.

Lice & Mites

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Why are my cattle scratching?

The characteristic symptom of infection with lice or mites is scratching, hair loss and a roughening of the coat. It’s important to note that these parasites can be a sign of an underlying problem, an upset animal will spend less time grooming themselves. Their coat will subsequently become scruffy and parasites can proliferate.

Lice are very common on cattle and low to moderate rates of infection are normal and shouldn’t cause concern. However, they can multiply and spread rapidly in indoor situations as animals come into frequent physical contact with other, infected animals. Thick winter coats provide the perfect environment for lice development and reproduction. As this coat is shed in the spring, parasite numbers dwindle. Direct exposure to sunlight also reduces lice proliferation rates.

The characteristic symptom of infection with lice or mites is scratching, hair loss and a roughening of the coat. It’s important to note that these parasites can be a sign of an underlying problem, an upset animal will spend less time grooming themselves. Their coat will subsequently become scruffy and parasites can proliferate.

Lice are very common on cattle and low to moderate rates of infection are normal and shouldn’t cause concern. However, they can multiply and spread rapidly in indoor situations as animals come into frequent physical contact with other, infected animals. Thick winter coats provide the perfect environment for lice development and reproduction. As this coat is shed in the spring, parasite numbers dwindle. Direct exposure to sunlight also reduces lice proliferation rates.

Tapeworm

No search results for this query.
How do I treat tapeworm?

Benzimidazole (white wormers) are effective against ruminant tapeworm (Moniezia), as are oxyclozanide products like Rumenil. This is the type you see in animals’ dung but not the type that causes meat condemnations in the factory or neurological issues. The latter are symptoms of carnivore (e.g. dog) tapeworm, which use our animal as an intermediate host. Preventing these would involve treating farm dogs and preventing them from defecating on pastures grazed by sheep or cattle. Read more...

Benzimidazole (white wormers) are effective against ruminant tapeworm (Moniezia), as are oxyclozanide products like Rumenil. This is the type you see in animals’ dung but not the type that causes meat condemnations in the factory or neurological issues. The latter are symptoms of carnivore (e.g. dog) tapeworm, which use our animal as an intermediate host. Preventing these would involve treating farm dogs and preventing them from defecating on pastures grazed by sheep or cattle. Read more...

Miscellaneous

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What is twin lamb disease or ketosis, and how do I treat it?

These conditions are imbalances of glucose in the systems of sheep (twin lamb disease/pregnancy toxaemia) and cows (ketosis/acetonemia). Typically, they occur just before and/or shortly after calving/lambing time. Treating them involves the administration of propylene glycol, a precursor for glucose production, which is found in Chanatol. Treating orally with glucose will not work as it will be metabolised by the microbes in the rumen.

These conditions are imbalances of glucose in the systems of sheep (twin lamb disease/pregnancy toxaemia) and cows (ketosis/acetonemia). Typically, they occur just before and/or shortly after calving/lambing time. Treating them involves the administration of propylene glycol, a precursor for glucose production. Treating orally with glucose will not work as it will be metabolised by the microbes in the rumen.

When should my calves get their first dose?

Artificially-reared calves require protection sooner than suckling calves from worms, in general. These animals are vulnerable as they will have no natural immunity built up at turnout. Concurrently they will be utilising grass as their main nutrition source and so consuming much more parasite larvae than suckling calves.

They will commonly be given products with persistence from three weeks post-turnout (clear wormers). First dose in suckler calves will generally not be required until they are consuming more grass (>3-4 months of age), but is dependent on variables like cow milkability, precipitation during the season, pasture history and stocking rate. Look for animals coughing when moved and/or thrive reduction as an indicator to dose suckler calves.

From a coccidiosis point of view, preventative treatment should be given a week in advance of expected symptoms, across whole groups, based on farm history.

Artificially-reared calves require protection sooner than suckling calves from worms, in general. These animals are vulnerable as they will have no natural immunity built up at turnout. Concurrently they will be utilising grass as their main nutrition source and so consuming much more parasite larvae than suckling calves.

They will commonly be given products with persistence from three weeks post-turnout (clear wormers). First dose in suckler calves will generally not be required until they are consuming more grass (>3-4 months of age), but is dependent on variables like cow milkability, precipitation during the season, pasture history and stocking rate. Look for animals coughing when moved and/or thrive reduction as an indicator to dose suckler calves.

From a coccidiosis point of view, preventative treatment should be given a week in advance of expected symptoms, across whole groups, based on farm history.

What is the best dose for lambs?

Best practice is to use white wormers like Albex, Zerofen or Bovex as a lamb’s first dose against nematodirus and then switch to yellow (Chanaverm Plus) or clear products (Moxodex or Animec Oral) thereafter as required.

Best practice is to use white wormers like Albex, Zerofen or Bovex as a lamb’s first dose against nematodirus and then switch to yellow (Chanaverm) or clear products (Moxodex or Animec Oral) thereafter as required.

How long between doses?

Leave 3-4 weeks between products with zero persistency and when timing a dose after a persistent product, add 3-4 weeks to the length of protection from reinfection (persistency) on the product label to get a practical dosing interval. Note a second treatment may not be required at all - use performance/faecal analysis where possible to help with decisions.

Leave 3-4 weeks between products with zero persistency and when timing a dose after a persistent product, add 3-4 weeks to the length of protection from reinfection (persistency) on the product label to get a practical dosing interval. Note a second treatment may not be required at all - use performance/faecal analysis where possible to help with decisions.

What is the best worm dose for calves?

This depends on farm history. Obviously avoid ingredients that the farm’s worm population has shown resistance to recently. Work choices around the farmer’s own time here. Products with persistence will require less frequent usage. Note that suckler calves will not be grazing as tight as dairy calves of the same age and will generally not need treatments until later in the season.

This depends on farm history. Obviously avoid ingredients that the farm’s worm population has shown resistance to recently. Work choices around the farmer’s own time here. Products with persistence will require less frequent usage. Note that suckler calves will not be grazing as tight as dairy calves of the same age and will generally not need treatments until later in the season.

How do I know that I have resistance?

Symptoms will remain/develop shortly after dosing. Where products have zero persistence, seeing symptoms from three weeks post dosing would be classified as normal. Use faecal egg analysis before and after treatment to confirm. In the case of lungworm, a cough post dosing can be a sign that the dose worked well but resulted in a significant amount of decaying worm material in the respiratory system causing an allergic reaction.

Symptoms will remain/develop shortly after dosing. Where products have zero persistence, seeing symptoms from three weeks post dosing would be classified as normal. Use faecal egg analysis before and after treatment to confirm. In the case of lungworm, a cough post dosing can be a sign that the dose worked well but resulted in a significant amount of decaying worm material in the respiratory system causing an allergic reaction.

What is the best housing treatment?

Currently no product covers all stages of all the important parasites in cattle or sheep. Protocol should be based on risk in a given year.

Currently no product covers all stages of all the important parasites in cattle or sheep. Protocol should be based on risk in a given year.

How do I take a faecal sample?

Take the sample fresh – as a rule you should hear the faeces that you’re collecting hit the ground. For a group sample, rise lying animals and they will pass dung shortly after. Take 50-100g pooled from 5-10 animals for an accurate reading. To take dung from a single animal with suspected infection, manually palpitate the rectum using a gloved hand until dung is passed. Seal collected faeces in a collection jar straightaway and send for analysis. Never freeze. Watch a how-to video

Take the sample fresh – as a rule you should hear the faeces that you’re collecting hit the ground. For a group sample, rise lying animals and they will pass dung shortly after. Take 50-100g pooled from 5-10 animals for an accurate reading. To take dung from a single animal with suspected infection, manually palpitate the rectum using a gloved hand until dung is passed. Seal collected faeces in a collection jar straightaway and send for analysis. Never freeze. Watch a how-to video

When should dairy cows get their first dose?

Best practice is to base dose timing on combination of changes in yield, condition and levels of coughing when exercising. Often, dosing before these symptoms will cause an increase in yield. This is because there is an energy-cost of maintaining natural immunity and treatment reduces this cost on the animals metabolism, leaving more for milk production. However, dosing too frequently will accelerate the onset of resistance to wormers.

Best practice is to base dose timing on combination of changes in yield, condition and levels of coughing when exercising. Often, dosing before these symptoms will cause an increase in yield. This is because there is an energy-cost of maintaining natural immunity and treatment reduces this cost on the animals metabolism, leaving more for milk production. However, dosing too frequently will accelerate the onset of resistance to wormers.

Do I need to dose my cows every year?

This is both farm and year specific. Rainfall largely governs the amount of parasites an animal is exposed to, so in years of low rainfall treatment may not be necessary (no symptoms/good yields all season), but this can change drastically in wet years – particularly in the case of lungworm where naturally immunity will dwindle in dry years, leaving animals very susceptible thereafter.

This is both farm and year specific. Rainfall largely governs the amount of parasites an animal is exposed to, so in years of low rainfall treatment may not be necessary (no symptoms/good yields all season), but this can change drastically in wet years – particularly in the case of lungworm where naturally immunity will dwindle in dry years, leaving animals very susceptible thereafter.

How do I treat coccidiosis?

Anticoccidials like diclazuril (Dycoxan) or toltrazuril (Chanox) will act to stop the coccidia lifecycle in the infected animal and prevent further oocyst shedding. However, as with all diarrhoea cases in cattle, our animal may need additional therapy if the symptoms have progressed enough – particularly rehydration therapy. Coccidiosis is largely a sub-clinical, or silent, disease. If one animal in a group is displaying symptoms, it is likely the whole group are compromised and should be treated in a preventative manner. Read more on coccidiosis...

Anticoccidials like diclazuril (Dycoxan) will act to stop the coccidia lifecycle in the infected animal and prevent further oocyst shedding. However, as with all diarrhoea cases in cattle, our animal may need additional therapy if the symptoms have progressed enough – particularly rehydration therapy. Coccidiosis is largely a sub-clinical, or silent, disease. If one animal in a group is displaying symptoms, it is likely the whole group are compromised and should be treated in a preventative manner. Read more on coccidiosis...

Are injectable doses better than pour ons?

If delivered accurately, both should be effective against the parasites they’re licenced to eradicate. Pour on doses typically have more encompassing treatment claims against external parasites. Animec Pour On will cover both biting and sucking lice while Animec Injection may not achieve complete removal of the biting lice population.

If delivered accurately, both should be effective against the parasites they’re licenced to eradicate. Pour on doses typically have more encompassing treatment claims against external parasites. Animec Pour On will cover both biting and sucking lice while Animec Injection may not achieve complete removal of the biting lice population.

Do I need to clip cattle before using pour on doses?

It is not a necessity for the product to work.

It is not a necessity for the product to work.

What are the wormer classes?

White (benzimidazole), yellow (levamisole) and clear (macrocyclic lactone). In sheep there are two other classes which are generally saved for use as break or quarantine doses. They are the orange (amino-acetonitrile derivatives) and purple (spiroindoles) classes.

White (benzimidazole), yellow (levamisole) and clear (macrocyclic lactone). In sheep there are two other classes which are generally saved for use as break or quarantine doses. They are the orange (amino-acetonitrile derivatives) and purple (spiroindoles) classes.

What do white wormers kill?

White wormers or Benzimidazoles kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep, as well as the ruminant tapeworm (Moniezia – generally non-pathogenic). Albendazole also treats mature liver fluke at a certain dose rate.

White wormers or Benzimidazoles kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep, as well as the ruminant tapeworm (Moniezia – generally non-pathogenic). Albendazole also treats mature liver fluke at a certain dose rate.

What do yellow wormers kill?

Yellow wormers or levamisoles kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep. Note that in cattle they are not effective against inhibited (or arrested) L4 Ostertagia o. larvae.

Yellow wormers or levamisoles kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep. Note that in cattle they are not effective against inhibited (or arrested) L4 Ostertagia o. larvae.

What do clear wormers kill?

Clear wormers or macrocyclic lactones kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep. They also treat certain external parasites, based on the route of application.

Clear wormers or macrocyclic lactones kill the important gastrointestinal (stomach and gut) and respiratory tract (lung) worms in cattle and sheep. They also treat certain external parasites, based on the route of application.

What wormer classes have persistent activity?

Certain clear wormers (macrocyclic lactones) have licensed persistent activity in cattle and sheep, meaning they prevent reinfection with certain parasites for a defined period post treatment. Check the packaging to be sure. Chanelle Pharma products with this characteristic include Moxodex Oral (sheep), Animec Injection, Animec Pour On, Animec Super, Epromec, Topimec Super, Topimec Pour On and Zeromectin (cattle). Resistance to these products is growing in both cattle and sheep and so a vet or licensed merchant should be consulted before using them.

Certain clear wormers (macrocyclic lactones) have licenced persistent activity in cattle and sheep, meaning they prevent reinfection with certain parasites for a defined period post treatment. Check the packaging to be sure. Chanelle Pharma products with this characteristic include Moxodex Oral (sheep), Animec Injection, Animec Pour On, Animec Super and Epromec (cattle). Resistance to these products is growing in both cattle and sheep and so a vet or SQP should be consulted before using them.

Should sheep farmers stop using white wormers (benzimidazoles)?

Although resistance to white wormers has been largely chronicled, they remain very effective against Nematodirus. Hence, they are perfect as a lamb’s first dose when Nematodirus is generally the sole gastrointestinal worm of concern.

Although resistance to white wormers has been largely chronicled, they remain very effective against Nematodirus. Hence, they are perfect as a lamb’s first dose when Nematodirus is generally the sole gastrointestinal worm of concern.

Are yellow wormers (levamisoles) the best treatment for lungworm?

As they paralyse, rather than kill the worm straightaway, yellow wormers allow for more natural expulsion of parasites from the lungs. They are the best choice if a moderate to large lungworm infection is expected. However, if in infestation is large enough any product can induce excessive coughing and thus respiratory complications in animals. That is why it’s important not to let lungworm infection get too advanced. Note they are not suitable for use in animals producing milk for human consumption. Read more...
Video on picking a lungworm dose

As they paralyse, rather than kill the worm straightaway, yellow wormers allow for more natural expulsion of parasites from the lungs. They are the best choice if a moderate to large lungworm infection is expected. However, if in infestation is large enough any product can induce excessive coughing and thus respiratory complications in animals. That is why it’s important not to let lungworm infection get too advanced. Note they are not suitable for use in animals producing milk for human consumption. Read more...

When is the best time to use a combination fluke & worm product?

Generally, we should avoid using flukicides when they’re not needed and vice versa wormers needn’t be used without necessity. Combination products are good housing treatments (note the age of fluke that is covered as most will leave certain stages behind). Also, they have a use early in a wet summer when warm moist conditions are proliferating and we want to prevent infection of mudsnails on pasture with liver fluke larvae. Cattle may also be receiving a routine worm dose at this point and so a combination product could be used instead. Read more...

Generally, we should avoid using flukicides when they’re not needed and vice versa wormers needn’t be used without necessity. Combination products are good housing treatments (note the age of fluke that is covered as most will leave certain stages behind). Also, they have a use early in a wet summer when warm moist conditions are proliferating and we want to prevent infection of mudsnails on pasture with liver fluke larvae. Cattle may also be receiving a routine worm dose at this point and so a combination product could be used instead. Read more...